A - Ampere [A]. A unit of electric current equal to a flow of 6.242×1018 electrons per second.
Multiple - 50 Amperes or 50 Amps as an Electrician's Jargon.
AC - Alternating Current [A]. Is a flow of the electric charge that periodically reverses direction.
We have 2 kinds of residential frequencies around the World 50 Hz and 60 Hz. 60 Hz means current changes direction (polarity)
60 times per second in US/Canada/Mexico electrical outlets. a military and an aviation use 480 Hz and Europe uses 50 HZ.
Adaptive Cruise Control - some car manufacturers called it as Dynamic/Radar Cruise Control or Smart. The primary safety
purpose of the system is Forward Collision Avoidance. The system holds preset constant distance between your car and
a car in front of you. A driver should set a distance, measured by a number of cars (or seconds). E.g: on a highway, it should not be
one car distance that would make followed driver nervous, but in a heavy city traffic it may be the one car distance when you stop
because it is odd to stop on a city intersection a four cars distance behind the front car, moreover if your Adaptive
Cruise Control includes Stop-and-go feature. W/o the Stop-and-go feature driver should re-engage all systems again after any
stop, eg. on a red traffic light. If an Adaptive Cruise Control (mostly included as an option in a package) has the Stop-and-go feature
than the car will automatically follow a front car after a full stop on an intersection w/o touching of any controls.
There is always a safety feature if you touch a brake pedal all systems (the cruise and line changing) are
disengaged even it has the Stop-and-go feature
ALC - Auto Lane Change. The ALC system is a logical possessor of Lane-Keeping System (common name: Hands-free steering)
AKA partial Lane Departure Warning LDW: Historically, LDW was developed first, the next step is keeping the lane
automatically by your car, finally, Tesla developed ALC to complete the system. There are 2 requirements for safe ALC:
Car must keep a lane safely and do not hit a front car if a driver do not steer. It means Adaptive Cruise Control must be engaged first
as an assurance that your car NEVER rear-ends a car in the front while keeping the lane.
Your car must have a surrounding observation system (cameras or radars) for the safe ALC.
If a driver engage ALC then a car will changes a current lane only in 2 cases:
A driver turns ON the right/left (e.g.) turn signal and the system engages all right/left side cameras, calculating when it is safe to change
the lane. It usually does not change for long time in a heavy traffic.
A driver forces his steering wheel (driver fills little steering wheel resistance) to gain the control, that disengages the ALC.
Eg. Some times the ALC can not handle a heavy traffic lane change and the driver force it,
receive a hunk from other driver, the hunk make a difference between 2 cases :).
Some car manufacturers combine Lane Keeping (not full ALC) and Adaptive Cruise Control under.
"Super Cruise" that is engaged by one button and not separately. Eg. Tesla has 2 clicks on a single
stick to engage FSD. And 1 click - for the Adaptive-Cruise.
AP - AutoPilot contains a Super Cruise
and AI (as many subroutine
code run each millisecond) inside your car computer to provide safe autonomous driving. The AP and any
related system are disengaged if you hit the brake or force the steering wheel to turn your car.
According the current (any states and federal) law: your hands must be always on your steering
wheel even you have latest FSD from Tesla. There is many different DUIT (Driving Under the Influence of a Technology :)
tickets in different states for show off an AP. Any of those tickets usually contains a "Public Endanger" phrase.
E.g. London Tesla driver's license has been suspended for few years even nothing happened, but a policemen
caught the driver on camera while he was sitting in passenger seat and his Tesla was driving on a highway autonomously.
Everybody understands that in a future with no speed limit driving, it would be safer to drive using an AI because
computer process any event a million times faster than hyman brain and computer almost never makes mistakes vs
human, if it programmed properly by human.
0. No autonomy. Ordinary or economy ICE vehicles maybe with common Cruise Control.
Driver Assistance. Expensive ICE cars or EV-s with limited features such as adaptive cruise control
and lane keep assist to help with driving fatigue. Adaptive Cruise is called Front Collision Avoidance System by some companies.
Good example of cars with Driver Assistance would be Toyota Prius Prime or Tesla Model 3 with lowest price
Partial autonomy. The L2 autonomy can assist in controlling speed and steering.
It will help with stop-and-go by maintaining the distance between you and the vehicle in front of you.
The following systems should be present to achieve the L2:
Adaptive Cruise Control
Autonomous Lane changer ALC with Line Hold
some times Automatic Brake Hold
Conditional autonomy. Level 3 autonomous vehicles are capable of driving themselves,
but only under certain conditions and with many limitations, such as limited-access divided highways at a certain speed.
Drivers are still required behind the wheel. A human driver is still required
to take over if the road conditions fall below ideal or it drives over a constraction zone. The good example could be any Tesla model
High autonomy. Level 4 autonomous vehicles can drive themselves without human interactions but will be restricted
to known use cases. We're not too far from seeing driverless vehicles out on public roads. Tesla embeded Google/iPhone callendar
in 2018 to the system. It drives you if the callendar has a proper distanation. I share my G. calendar with my boss and sometime
I do not know to where my Tesla is driving me because my boss typed the destanation.
Level 4 vehicles capable of driving themselves in most environments and road conditions. Tesla start to recoghize
a road constraction cons in 2020 but I fill more safe to drive by myself over a constraction zone.
Full autonomy. The level of the Future is in test mode now, The test on public roads
requeres especial commercial permit from government. Some states requere a driver presence too.
Level 5 capable vehicles should be able to monitor and maneuver through all road conditions and require AI and no human interventions.
L5 has 2 main competitors: Waymo and Tesla. Waymo provides Software and hardware to automotive companies or startups while
Tesla has the final product as an artificially intelligent car today, but due to State regulations and legal battles it is
allowed to use only portial Tesla Full Safe-Driving FSD features so, driver must hold
the steering wheel and can not send Tesla home. Tesla successfuly integrated Google/iOS calendar in the sytem
that I started to use in 2018. The less Expensive and
efficient way to install Waymo system to an EV. While ICE requerd many additional mechanical interface sytems.
That why you see on city streets mostly GM Bolt
(with a startup company name - almost never Waymo) friquently testing the self-driving equipment.
One of the L5 Mercedes prototype EV has a bed instead of seat.
BEV - Battery (only) Electric Vehicle. EV is general acronym while a BEV means no other source of energy (to charge
traction battery while driving) has been involved. Modern BEV mostly uses variation of a Li-ion chemistry. The Li-ion
has many advantages over predecessors (Ni-Cd or Lead-acid). One of most important: There is no battery memory effect and the
battery does not need periodic full discharge cycles (as additional service), that degrades (Capacity Retention [%])
any battery significantly. Also Li-ion has more charging cycles, that easy brings the battery pack life span to 70-300 kilo-miles.
It depends from manufacturer and how a driver charges and discharges the battery pack.
CAFE - Corporate Average "Fuel Economy". a federal agency for a regulation to reduce an energy consumption by increasing a vehicle's fuel economy.
CB - Circuit Breaker is an automatic ON/OFF electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit
from damage or fire caused by excess current from an overload or short circuit. Basic function is to interrupt current
flow after a fault is detected. Unlike a fuse, which operates once and then must be replaced, a circuit breaker can
be reset to resume normal operation. The reset might be either a manual (residential) or an automatic (mostly commercial buildings).
The automatic reset switches ON the CB after a minute or several seconds several times after that you should reset it manually.
CCS - Combined Charging System of SAE World Standard. CCS is EV charging hardware that runs software as a protocol for
3 levels: EV on-board chargers J1772 (L1+L2) and L3 CCS. CCS supports DC and 3 phase AC charging in Europe up to 450 kW. 350kW 'public'
charging DC station is working in Berlin, Porsche headquarter from 2017. To consume such a high power with hardware (and conductor diameter)
limited by 400A only, any EV (including Tesla) needs voltage reducer (from 900VDC to 480VDC) on board of EV, because CCS
and Supercharger switches to double voltage of 800VDC if the public supercharger detects the reducer on board.
CFV - Clean Fuel Vehicle. Any vehicle certified by the EPA that meets Federal 'emission' standards. Eg Toyota Prius
CHAdeMO - CHAarge de MOve or "How about a cup of tea?" (while you charge so fast) from Japanese language. A Japanese Fast DC System
(name of charger/protocol and connector) is 'not' approved by SAE or other organizations, but it is licensed in
Japan/US/Europe and installed on Japanese EVs, except Honda! It is a 'separated addition' to L1+L2 J1772. Practically
limited by 50kW in theory 100kW (does not exist). Nissan Leaf is a main EV to require the CHAdeMO charging.
2018 Leaf maximum power acceptance is 50kW DC. While Tesla and Porsche (E-mission) are capable to consume up to 350kW DC.
CHAdeMO does not have (in specs) double voltage capability (from 400VDC to 800VDC)as other DC chargers.
It is only one 'theoretical' advantage over CCS - redundancy. Leaf EV should be able to fast charge if the second J1772 charger is malfunctioned.
EU prohibited to install new PUBLIC (only) CHAdeMO chargers since 2015. Consider Nissan dealership in Europe as a private property
Charger for EV - see EVSE, CCS and Supercharger
CPV - Concentrator PhotoVoltaic systems (or cells). Solar panel cell with lenses and mirrors those focus
(concentrate) light to increase efficiency up to 50%. Eg. Experimental Ford EV have been using it in 2017 on the roof of the EV to charge EV battery.
DC - Direct Current [A]. DC current does not change direction vs. AC. Tesla and CCS level 3 chargers use 200-900 VDC,
pumping to a battery pack about 400A. Tesla EV driver can install an additional DC to DC inverter or
a Powerpack 2
It reduces 800VDC from a Supercharger to normal voltage required by Tesla battery pack, to charge Tesla EV faster.
That allows to charge Tesla to 80% during 15 minutes from 350 kW supercharger ver. 3.0 We’re now coming close to
parity with gasoline pumping time.
DoD - Depth of Discharge [%] for any battery; opposite of SoC [%] - State of Charge. Eg: 1% SoC = that is
dangerous for any Li-ion pack because full discharge (100% DoD) can kill some Li-ion pack.
DOE - U.S. Department of Energy. a federal organization is a Cabinet-level department concerned about policies
regarding energy and safety. It has many research facilities.
DOT - U.S. Department of Transportation. a federal organization is an agency charged with the establishment,
maintenance, and regulation of public transportation. Each state may have decentralized DOT.
DRAG COEFFICIENT is a common measure in automotive design as it pertains to an aerodynamics. The lower the drag - the
lower energy have been spent by a vehicle to resist an air mostly after 60 mph.
The slipperiest cars are: VOLKSWAGEN XL1 (non production because DOT does not allows cameras instead of
rear-view mirrors) has 0.19, GM EV1 - 0.21, Tesla S - 0.24, Toyota Prius - 0.26.
The first purpose of 60mph (55 for semi truck)
speed limit is Fuel Economy and the second purpose it is safety. The air resistance growing rapidly after 60mph.
E.g. Prius Prime fuel consumption measurements: 55mph - 52 mpg, 90mph - 29 MPG! 110mph-8 MPG!! measured in calm weather with no wind and even
surface on I80 in Montana. And the Prius has one of the best drug coefficient while semi-truck has worst aerodynamics
and some semi-track drug coefficient is almost like a parachute drug coefficient.
E or η - Efficiency [%] is often measured as the
ratio of useful output energy to total input energy [multiplied by 100%]. Each industry has its own interpretation of the efficiency.
A modern ICE range η is about 10%-20%. Mazda Miata
rotary engine has 26% that is a top for ICE cars. It could be interpreted to [Wh/mile] or [MPG] or [MPGe]. Modern ICE car
has a range between 10 and 42 MPG. Modern Electrical motor range is 90%-99% and also could be associated with MPGe. BMW i3
has 137 MPGe, confirmed by EPA. Powerful electric motors (in lab or NAVY ships) cooled by liquid Nitrogen
(to achieve superconductivity) has about 99.8% efficiency while the Theoretical Thermodynamic limit of ICE is 46%. It
means no matter how much time (10.000 years) or money oil magnates will spend, in any way more than half
energy of ICE is wasted for noise, heat and internal friction of hundreds moving parts. FYI electric motor has only one
moving part - rotor
E - Electric Energy [kWh] accumulated in EV battery or consumed by your household during one hour. The prime unit of
Energy in Physics is Jole [J] = 2.78×10−7 kWh. Eg: Tesla S 100D means the EV will accumulate 100
kWh and it is easy to calculate a cost of
full charged Tesla battery at your home overnight: 100 kWh x $0.10/kWh = $10. If an EV driver live in California
than a driver can pay 4 cents/kwh by engaging in
with local Electricity Provider. Driver just need to call the company and provide his/her EV VIN.
Electric fire usually happens when inside wall electric cable works as a fuse: over-current goes via a wire
that is thinner then suppose to be, or Short Circuit process is occurred. To avoid it follow NEC gauge requirements
or US Table of AWG wire sizes.
EPA - Environmental Protection Agency (Federal). An agency that protects human health and the environment by writing
and enforcing regulations.
ERAD - Electric Rear Axle Drive. Majority of EVs with single motor are ERAD.
EV - Electric Vehicle - . EV uses only Electric motor(s) for propulsion
and various sources of electric energy. If the EV uses 100% battery to supply energy than it is BEV
Any EV must have a small battery pack for the energy buffering in any way, of using any other source of electricity.
Good example a serial hybrid such as BMW i3 with REX, or Honda Clarity FCEV has 2kWh battery pack to store/buffer Energy from the Fuel Cells
EVSE - Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment. AKA as EV Level 1 or/and 2 charger. Equipment is an infrastructure/device that 'safely' supplies
electricity for charging of electric vehicles. The safety protocol is responsible for human and equipment protection.
It allows to charge your EV on any harsh weather condition even while you are completely wet. It always communicates with
your EV on-board computer about safety and optimal parameters of charging current. It uses J1772 protocol to do it.
It is expensive because it has a computer inside. The safety protocols are simular
between a kitchen (or near water) GFCI outlet and the EVSE. Both will NOT work w/o ground, and both are shuts down
on overload, short or current anomaly is detected. The current anomaly is a human shock hazard current.
Current of around 30 mA through the human body is potentially sufficient to cause
cardiac arrest or serious harm if it persists during even a few seconds! If EVSE detecs such current then
it shuts down 'during a millisecond' and human even does not fill the shock due the short period of time.
Conductive moleculas of water on your skin and wet close makes new circuit to kill you -- EVSE simply saves your life!
To reset your EVSE: disconnect and connect it to the wall and watch for a Green LED after the reset. Green LED is ON
means EVSE or GFCI works properly/safe and ready to protect you again.
F - Farad. A unit of electrical capacity measurement in electrical capacitors.
FCEV - Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle. An EV that uses Fuel Cells (FC) as source of electricity. A FCEV is an EV with
a dual source of energy: a battery pack and a FC those charge the battery pack. A FC has big energy supply inertia,
that why FCEV must have battery pack. Where you will store the electricity from FC if your car stopped? Some people
have a misconception about FC: they think FC a device that allows burn hydrogen instead gasoline in any car.
ICE can burn hydrogen or propane inside cylinders with proper carburetor or the fuel preparation, but it wouldn't be a FCV.
It would be a hydrogen ICE. Clean fuels in descending order of air pollution hazard: Diesel, gasoline, liquid propane,
Liquid hydrogen. A propane or a hydrogen used in some FC.
Generator - an electric generator that produces electric energy. In case of ICE, it is called an alternator.
The alternator produces electricity only to charge an axillary 12VDC battery. An EV may has a generator that
mechanically connected to small ICE as a REx system. The REx charges only traction battery pack
HEV - Hybrid Electric Vehicle. We have 2 kind of HEV - Serial (BMW i3 with REx or BMW i8) and parallel
(GM Volt and Toyota Prius). In parallel - 2 motors (Electric and ICE) work together. In serial -- while electric motor is only
traction motor and low Efficiency ICE just produces Electric Energy. It does not make sense to produce serial hybrid
anymore because it cost almost 2 times than similar ICE car with about 10 MPG difference!: Toyota Yaris/Prius - 42/55 MPG respectively.
The serial hybrid has little bit less efficiency compare to BEV - 100 vs 120 MPGe. Some military forces started to
use HEV that has interesting schema: One of the 2 axles connected to an electric motor other axle has an ICE! Sync
between those 2 axles is a real challenge (and complication) but the HEV does not to be all wheels drive. One of the
controversial (and dangerous) concept of serial HEV: HEV with Thorium Nuclear Reactor. The sealed reactor (volume is about few
meters 3) may produce enough energy during thousands years! Some Electric motors work during 100 years
(24x7) on water pumping stations. Nobody would tell you that any ICE transmission (sometime the ICE too) should be re-adjusted and maybe repaired
after almost 'each' drag race between Tesla and any million dollar ICE car.
HOV decal/sticker - High Occupancy Vehicle lane (AKA carpool) The decal also permits to drive EV (with the sticker) w/o any
passengers on any HOV lane. Click to
view eligible EV in California.It is a law only in EV friendly states or countries. Eg. California and Norway.
The decal system distinguishes air polluters from non polluters and encourages drivers to protect our Planet!
hp - horse power. 1 hp is equal to 746 Watts. hp or Watt (kW usually) is any engine a main specification unit.
HPWC - High Power Wall Connector AKA EV charger. It is a Tesla's only abbreviation. See EVSE.
ICE - Internal Combustion Engine. You have been ICEd (Jargon) - means ICE vehicle blocked (or parked on EV spot)
EV access to a public charger and your EV is frozen :). The absurd and greed of our civilization is: Oil magnates
spent billions during last century to increase ICE efficiency from 10% to 20% while we have had over 90% efficiency
CLEAN electric engine!! Moreover ICE already polluted China (and Earth) air and China authority will prohibit to
register ICE cars in 2030! Moreover ICE is 'Dead End' because Theoretical Thermodynamic limit of ICE is 46%. It means:
ICE maybe cleaner in the future car design but more than half energy will be always LOST! Many car manufactures (Except Volvo) continue
to spend money to increase ICE efficiency and make it more clean
L - level. All EV in the World have L2 J1772 connector while L3 (fast charging) is an expensive option for some EV. L3 connectors are different.
US EV have 3 different L3 connectors. The term Level and Type are interchangeable. EG. T3 fast charger. Most important:
L1+L2 uses the same J1772 (in the World) protocol and adapters (Euro to US or Tesla to J1772) are simple and small wired adapters.
L3 chargers use different protocols and those require expensive ($300 Chademo to Tesla) and huge adapters with a fast computer
inside that has only one task -- to translate a protocol to different protocol in the Real Time.
Below is L1, L2, L3 - 3 Levels of EV charging. Maximum power and -- World standards of those levels:
L1 - Home overnight charging. 90-120 VAC x 16 A = 1.92 kW -- SAE J1772 in all countries with 110-120 VAC. Minimum ampacity is 6A.
Eg. L1 does not exist in Europe
L2 - Common public charging 208-240 VAC x 80 A = 19.2 kW -- SAE J1772. Europe has 2 kind of J1772 connectors: US and European.
Consider to calculate charging time: All public charges in US and Europe are 32A max. EVSE power is 240*32=7.7kW
A full charge time of 24kWh battery pack would be: 24/7.7 about 3.1 hours.
All countries EV use standard J1772 connector for L1+L2 charging including Tesla that
required small and simple J1772 adapter. Tesla EV uses J1772 standard charging protocol for L1+L2 charging. In Europe you
must bring your own J1772 cable to use for public charging. There is no hanging loops of cable.
L2 - AC 3 phase in Europe (Zoe EV) or 3 phase Tesla EV in China. Sometime 3 phase considered as a Fast Charging but it
uses SAE J1772 L2 protocol
L3 - Fast charger. CCS DC 200-1000VDC up to 350 KW (currently most EV accept: 45-150 kW)
L3 - Tesla Supercharger DC up to 350 KW (currently 72/120/250kW 400VDC, Future upgrades to 350 KW with 800VDC).
L3 - CHAdeMO 480VDC up to 50-62.2 KW. EU prohibited to build new CHAdeMO 'public' chargers in Europe after 2016 --
Licensed in Japan only with a proprietary protocol. Honda EVs use CCS after 2017 because CCS is more reliable
Almost all EVs (including Tesla) in the World have L1 & L2 hardware on board supported by SAE J1772 protocol as a software.
Europe doesn't need L1 because most EU countries do not have 120VAC, L2 EV
charging is 220VAC there. As now (2017) almost all public network EV L2 chargers (with a card reader) provide maximum 32A
or 7.7 kW of power. If you rely on this public chargers and do not have a charger @ home than it does not make a sense
to buy more expensive EV with a 80A L2 charger. E.G. do not pay $9000 over for Tesla M3 334 miles if you plan to
charge it on free L2 public stations only and minimize use of Supercharger that will not be free. Moreover you will not be able
to install 40A L2 Destination Charger at your condo because of current limit (60A/unit) in a service line that connects your condo
to the greed. Almost all EVs accept only 32A of maximum current on L2 charger. Except Tesla M3 extended range - 40A, some
Tesla S and X - 80A. Tesla Supercharger operates now @ 140 KW DC, few superchargers are 350 kW and Tesla will start to
produce Supercharges beyond 350 kW in 2019. FYI one of the first nuclear power station produces just 1 MW, that can
charge simultaneously only 3 Tesla with Powerpack V2 installed on board. Elon Musk said: No modification on the grid
necessary, SolarCity will build solar panels to cover almost all superchargers.
Developed in 2001 the World J1772 standard defines two charging levels:
Peak Current [A]
L2 in Europe
Leg to leg of a 208Y of 3-phase
80 (2009 standard)
Li-Ion Lithium-Ion rechargeable batteries chemistry. Variety of (chemistry) Li-Ion battery used for modern EV. One of
the first Tesla S made 250,000 miles (in harsh Finland climate)
and lost 7% of its Li-Ion original pack capacity and the car looks OK w/o any major repairs. The owner paid mostly for
tires only. What an owner would do with ICE car after quarter of million miles?? LOL. Smart car rental companies
auction new ICE cars after warrantied 32,000 miles. NiMH - Nickel Metal Hydride is predecessor of modern
rechargeable batteries that used in legendary EV1. EV1 created and destroyed by GM. It has been repossessed by force
from happy drivers and vandalized! See documentary "Who killed Electric car?"
MPGe - Mile Per Gallon (recalculated) equivalent used for EV only.
MSRP - Manufacturer's Suggested Retail Price, suggested to a dealer. Tesla does not follow the dealership system
because a salesmen prefers to sale an ICE car that brings to him more money in the future for additional repairs
and services than an EV. Since 2011 (almost a decade) I paid for tires ONLY for my Nissan Leaf! No replacement or service for:
an oil, a brake pads, still healthy auxiliary 12VDC battery etc. No belt or internal ICE chain to change, no ignition to tune.
A variable delivery price is additional money for a dealership, that Tesla included in Starting Price. There is well known fact:
so many buyers did try to buy the Nissan Leaf and end-up with a Nissan SUV polluter. The Seattle EV club organized EV watch week
at few Bellevue, WA Nissan dealerships in 2012 with the city government involvement. I was a volunteer and educated many families
during a weekend, those sent me a great thank emails (with questions) after few years of the EV experience and a money savings!
NEMA - National Electrical Manufacturers Association is responsible for national electrical standards those must be
in cooperation with NEC. Eg. NEMA 14-50P is a common plug used by most EVSE. NEMA 5-15R a common household receptacle.
In the acronym NEMA (L)(X)X-XXP/R -- P stands for the Plug, R - Receptacle and L (if present) - for Locked. X is digit,
the last 2 digits -XX are always max Amperage. NEMA did not created yet any standards above 60 Amp. There is no 80A
receptacle or plug. The 80A plug does not exist. That is why all EVSE above 60A must be hardwired directly to a Circuit
Breaker inside an Electrical Load Center.
Neutral gear purpose in EV. EV must be driven in neutral gear if you are driving a long downhill with
100% charged battery pack! If EV manufacturer has not been count this situation then you will simply kill your batteries
by overcharging those during long descend. Even your EV or you has a full control of a regeneration, the
prevention (error in software etc) and logic would be use of neutral gear. Replace brake pads after overheating
is cheaper than replace expensive battery pack. EV does not regenerate on neutral gear and your brakes works
as on ICE car. Use pulse breaking instead of holding it during all descent. Do not afraid (but follow your balance
instinct) curving on any descent (except slippery road) because an EV has 'low center of gravity' and an EV handles curves
better than majority of ICE sport cars!
NPV - Nanotubes PhotoVoltaic system. Solar panel cell using Nanotubes to increase a light absorbency to almost 100%,
that increase efficiency up to 50%. Used mostly by NASA in a space due the high cost.
Power - P measured in [W] Watt. According the Physics: P=I*V
PV - Photo Voltaic AKA Solar Panel. A panel cell or unit converts a light energy into electricity.
A small PV has been installed on some Nissan Leafs. Those supply electricity only to the auxiliary 12 VDC battery.
See also CPV or NPV. 2 companies: Lightyear and Sono Motors produced EV with PV to charge tracktion battery
Regenerative braking — A torque electric motor works as a generator recharging batteries using kinetic energy of
the vehicle. With normal friction brakes, a certain amount of energy is lost in the form of heat created by friction
from braking. The destruction kinetic energy goes back into the batteries resulting in improved range. All ICE cars
slowly destroy their brake pads because those do not have a traction batteries to return energy.
REx - R_ange Ex_tender (irregular abbreviation) is small ICE engine connected to electric generator to produce
electricity with a purpose: only to charge an EV traction battery. That system is defined the true SERIAL hybrid.
Eg. BMW i3 (with REX) is the serial hybrid vs. Prius and GM Volt are not the serial hybrids.
SAE - Society of Automotive Engineers. A society that creates and supports automotive technology standards.
SAE J1772 - International Standard for Level 1 and 2 AC EV Chargers. Sometime referred to
a common charging EV connector. J1772 supports 1 phase AC charging up to 20 kW (240V/80A). In Europe it could be 3 phase.
SSB - Solid State Battery. Li-Ion or other chemistry battery with solid state electrolyte. Electrolyte inside any
common battery is a jel-like dense liquid.
Supercapacitor or ultracapacitor [F-Farad]- is a high-capacity (1F-1000F) capacitor with capacitance values much higher than
common capacitors used in electronic's circuits. It is 0.1F max. It can
accept and deliver charge much faster than batteries, and tolerate many more charge and discharge cycles than
rechargeable batteries but it has low energy density and it does not hold charge long time as a battery.
Best Li-Ion battery can hold a charge during a year. From the Physics point-view: The electrical energy in a capacitor
is stored in an electric field, where a battery stores its electrical energy using a chemical property of a material.
Future EV will use a supercapasitors to work together with batteries.
Tesla acquired a supercapacitor maker Maxwell Technologies company in 2019.
T - Tesla [T] is a unit of magnetic flux density named after Nikola Tesla. Telsa Corp.
also named after the well-known US-European inventor Tesla.
Trademark letter T is a logo for Tesla Energy Corp.
that makes the best EV in the World, has a most large and dense network of level 3 fast Superchargers,
battery and solar panel producer. Best car manufactures lost customers to Tesla and those
Co. are trying to achieve Tesla benchmark. In 2016 Tesla giveaway almost all Tesla patents to bring EV
competition on the sufficient level. If you are buying an EV and would like to travel/drive 'anywhere', a Tesla
should be your first choice while other EVs (today) are just a local commuters due limited network of level 3 fast chargers.
UL certification. UL - Underwriters Laboratories now serve 113 countries
(since 1894) to test toxic materials, dangerous electrical equipment and components to provide World/public safety
standards and building inspections. All your EV and EVSE components must be UL certified or UL listed. Any
equipment with dangerous voltage/power should be UL certified.
V - Voltage [V] is electric potential difference between two points. We have few kind of residential AC voltage
around the World: 208V 3 phase converts to 110V in commercial buildings and 240V single phase does split to 120V
in US household. Usually 3 phase converts to 220VAC in Europe that why Europe does not have Level 1 charging.
VAC - Volts of Alternating Current. Versus VDC - Volts of Direct Current DC. Eg: 240 VAC is common single phase
voltage of service line for modern US, Canada and Mexico household.
VIN - Vehicle Identification Number. The VIN is a unique sequence of 17 characters. Those contains basic vehicle
specifications, year, place of the car production and last 6 characters are the vehicle serial number. A VIN can
be found inside the driver's side door, open the door and look at the door post (where the door latches when
it is closed). Also it is on the driver corner of the dashboard where it meets the windshield.
W - Watt is measurement of Power [W] Classic definition of the 1 Watt of Power is an Energy
produced/consumed during one second. 1 [hp] horsepower is 746 watts. Electricians define [kW] kilo-Watt (eg. consumed power) as
10 Amps consumed by a load with voltage of 100 Volts on the load contacts. Or Pload = 10A X 100V = 1000W