EV Acronyms


  • A – Ampere [A]. A unit of electric current equal to a flow of 6.242×1018 electrons per second.
  • AC – Alternating Current [A]. Is the a flow of the electric charge that periodically reverses direction. We have 2 kind of residential frequencies around the World 50 Hz and 60 Hz. 60 Hz means current changes direction (polarity) 60 times per second in US/Canada/Mexico electrical outlets. a military and an aviation use 400 Hz and Europe uses 50 HZ.


  • BEV – Battery (only) Electric Vehicle. EV is general acronym while a BEV means no other hybrid technology involved.


  • CAFE – Corporate Average Fuel Economy. a federal agency for a regulation to reduce an energy consumption by increasing a vehicle’s fuel economy.
  • CCS – Combined Charging System. CCS is EV charging hardware that runs J1772 software as a join protocol for 2 EV on-board chargers J1772 (l1+L2) and L3 CCS. CCS supports DC and 3 phase AC charging up to 350 kW.
  • CFV – Clean Fuel Vehicle. Any vehicle certified by the EPA that meets Federal ’emission’ standards.
  • CHAdeMO – Cup of tea. A Japanese Fast DC System (charger/protocol and connector) is ‘not’ approved by SAE or other organizations. Installed on Japanese EV (Except Honda) only as ‘separated addition’ to J1772.
  • CPV – Concentrator PhotoVoltaic systems (or cells). Solar panel cell with lenses and mirrors those focus (concentrate) light to increase efficiency up to 50%. Eg. Experimental Ford EV have been using it in 2017 on the roof of the EV to charge EV battery.


  • DC – Direct Current [A]. DC current does not change direction vs. AC. Almost all level 3 chargers use 400-600 VDC. Tesla EV driver can install an additional DC to DC inverter or a Powerpack 2 (it reduces 800VDC to normal supercharger VDC) to charge Tesla EV faster. That allows to charge Tesla to 80% during 10 minutes from 350 kW supercharger ver. 3.0 We’re now coming close to parity with gasoline pumping time.
  • DOE – U.S. Department of Energy. a federal organization is a Cabinet-level department concerned about policies regarding energy and safety. It has many research facilities.
  • DOT – U.S. Department of Transportation. a federal organization is an agency charged with the establishment, maintenance, and regulation of public transportation. Each state may have decentralized DOT.
  • DRAG COEFFICIENT is a common measure in automotive design as it pertains to an aerodynamics. The lower the drag – the lower energy have been spent by a vehicle to resist an air mostly after 60 mph. The slipperiest cars are: VOLKSWAGEN XL1 (non production because DOT does not allows cameras instead of rear-view mirrors) has 0.19, GM EV1 – 0.21, Tesla S – 0.24, Toyota Prius – 0.26.


  • E (η) – Efficiency [%] is often measured as the ratio of useful output energy to total input energy [multiplied by 100%]. A modern ICE range is about 10%-20%. Mazda Miata rotary engine has 26%. It could be represented by MPG. Modern ICE car has a range between 10 and 42 MPG. Modern El motor range is 90%-99% and also could be associated with MPGe. BMW i3 has 137 MPGe, confirmed by EPA. Powerful electric motors (in lab) cooled by liquid nitrogen (to achieve superconductivity) has about 99.8% efficiency.
  • E – Electric Energy [kWh] accumulated in EV battery or consumed by your household during one hour. The prime unit of Energy in Physics is Jole [J] = 2.78×10−7 kWh. Eg: Tesla S 100D means the EV will accumulate 100 kWh (Dual motors) and it is easy to calculate a cost of full charged Tesla battery at your home overnight: 100 kWh x $0.10/kWh = $10. If an EV driver live in California than a driver can pay 4 cents/kwh by engaging in Plan A with local Electricity Provider. Driver just need to call the company and provide his/her EV VIN.
  • Electric fire usually happens when inside wall electric cable works as a fuse: overcurrent goes via a wire that is thinner then suppose to be, or Short Circuit process is occurred. To avoid it follow NEC gauge requirements or US Table of AWG wire sizes.
  • EPA – Environmental Protection Agency (Federal). An agency that protects human health and the environment by writing and enforcing regulations.
  • EV – Electric Vehicle – . EV uses only Electric motor(s) for propulsion.
  • EVSE – Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment. AKA as EV charger. Equipment is an infrastructure/device that supplies electricity for charging of electric vehicles.


  • FCEV – Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle. An EV that uses Fuel Cells (FC) as source of electricity. A FCEV is an EV with dual source of energy: a battery pack and a FC those charge the battery pack. A FC has big energy supply inercia, that why FCEV must have battery pack. Where you will store the electricity from FC if your car stopped? Some people have a misconception about FC: they think FC a device that allows burn hydrogen instead gasoline in any car. You can burn hydrogen or propane inside any ICE with proper carburetor or the fuel preparation, but it wouldn’t be a FCV. It would be a hydrogen CFV. Clean fuels in descending order of air pollution hazard: Diesel, gasoline, liquid propane, Liquid hydrogen. A propane or a hydrogen used in some FC.


  • Generator – an electric generator that produces electric energy. In case of ICE, it is called an alternator. The alternater produces electricity only to charge an axillary 12VDC battery. An EV may have generator that mechanicaly connected to small ICE as a REX system.


  • HEV – Hybrid Electric Vehicle. We have 2 kind of HEV – Serial (BMW i3 with REX or BMW i8) and parallel (GM Volt and Toyota Prius). In parallel – 2 motors (Electric and ICE) work together while Electric motor is only traction motor and low Efficiency ICE just produces Electric Energy. It does not make sense to produce serial hybrid anymore because it cost almost 2 times than similar ICE car with about 10 MPG difference!: Toyota Yaris/Prius – 42/55 MPG respectively. The serial hybrid has little bit less efficiency compare to BEV – 100 vs 120 MPGe. Some military forces started to use HEV that has interesting schema: One of the 2 axles connected to an electric motor other axle has an ICE! Sync between those 2 axles is a real challenge (and complication) but the HEV does not to be all wheels drive.
    One of the controversial concept of serial HEV: HEV with Thorium Nuclear Reactor. The sealed reactor (volume is about few meters 3) may produce enough energy during thousands years! Some Electric motors work during 200 years on water pumping stations. Nobody would tell you that any ICE transmission should be re-adjusted and maybe repaired after almost ‘each’ drag race between Tesla and any million dollar ICE car.
  • HOV sticker – High Occupancy Vehicle lane decal that permits to drive EV (with the sticker) w/o any passengers on any HOV lane. Click to view eligible EV in California.
  • hp – horsepower is 746 watts. It is main engine specification.
  • HPWC – High Power Wall Connector AKA charger. It is a Tesla’s only abbreviation. See EVSE.


  • ICE – Internal Combustion Engine. You have been ICEd (Jargon) – means ICE vehicle blocked (or parked on EV spot) EV access to a public charger and your EV is frozen :). The absurd and greed of our civilization is: Oil magnates spent billions during last century to increase ICE efficiency from 10% to 20% while we have had over 90% efficiency CLEAN electric engine!! Moreover ICE already polluted China (and Earth) air and China authority will prohibit to register ICE cars in 2030! Moreover ICE is ‘Dead End’ because Theoretical Thermodynamic limit of ICE is 46%. It means: ICE maybe cleaner in the future car design but more than half energy will be always LOST!


  • L1, L2, L3 – 3 Levels of EV charging. Maximum power and — World standards of those levels:
    • L1 – 120 VAC x 16 A = 1.92 kW — SAE J1772 in all contries with 110-120 VAC
    • L2 – 240 VAC x 80 A = 19.2 kW — SAE J1772. Europe has 2 kind of connecteors: US and European
    • L3 – AC 3 phase — SAE J1772 in Europe
    • L3 – CCS DC up to 350 KW (currently 45-150 kW) and AC L3 3 phase — SAE J1772 Americas and Europe
    • L3 – Tesla Supercharger DC up to 350 KW (currently 150 kW, Future 0.5 GW) and AC L3 phase, depends from country
    • L3 – ChaDemo DC up to 50-62.2 KW. EU prohibited to build new Chademo ‘public’ chargers in Europe after 2016 — Licensed in Japan only with a proprietary protocol. Honda EVs use CCS after 2016

    Almost all EVs (including Tesla) in the World have L1 & L2 hardware on board supported by SAE J1772 protocol as a software. Europe doesn’t need L1 because most EU countries do not have 120VAC, L2 EV charging is 220VAC there. As now (2017) almost all public network EV L2 chargers (with a card reader) provide maximum 32A or 7.7 kW of power. If you rely on this public chargers and do not have a charger @ home than it does not make a sense to buy more expensive EV with a 80A L2 charger. E.G. do not pay $9000 over for Tesla M3 334 miles if you plan to charge it on free L2 public stations only and minimize use of Supercharger that will not be free. Moreover you will not be able to install 40A L2 Destination Charger at your condo because of current limit (60A/unit) in service line that connects your condo to the greed. Almost all EVs accept only 32A of maximum current on L2 charger. Except Tesla M3 extended range – 40A, some Tesla S and X – 80A. Tesla Supercharger operates now @ 140 KW DC, few superchargers are 350 kW and Tesla will start to produce Supercharges beyond 350 kW in 2019. FYI one of the first nuclear power station produces just 1 MW, that can charge simultaneously only 3 Tesla with Powerpack V2 installed on board. Elon Musk said: No modification on the grid necessary, SolarCity will build solar panels to cover almost all superchargers.

  • Li-Ion Lithium-Ion rechargeable batteries chemistry. Variety of (chemistry) Li-Ion battery used for modern EV. On of the first Tesla S made 250,000 miles (in harsh Finland climate) and lost 7% of its Li-Ion original pack capacity and the car looks OK w/o any major repairs. The owner paid mostly for tires only. What an owner would do with ICE car after quarter of million miles?? LOL. Smart car rental companies auction new ICE cars after warrantied 32,000 miles. NiMH – Nickel Metal Hydride is predecessor of modern rechargeable batteries that used in legendary EV1. EV1 created and destroyed by GM. It has been repossessed by force from happy drivers and vandalized! See documentary “Who killed Electric car?”


  • MPG – Mile Per Gallon
  • MPGe – Mile Per Gallon (recalculated) equivalent used for EV only.


  • NEC – National Electrical Code
  • NEMA – National Electrical Manufacturers Association. NEMA 14-50P is (P stands for Plug. R stands for receptacle) common plug used on EVSE. NEMA 5-15R common household receptacle/outlet.
  • Neutral gear purpose in EV (in addition). EV must be driven in neutral gear if you are driving a long downhill with 100% charged battery pack! If EV manufacturer has not been count this situation then you will simply kill your batteries by overcharging those during long descend. Even your EV or you (manually) has a full control of a regeneration, the prevention (error in software etc) and simplicity would be use of neutral gear. Replace brake pads after overheating is cheaper than replace expensive battery pack. Use pulse breaking instead of holding it during all descent. Do not afraid (but follow your balance instinct) curving on any descent (except slippery road) because EV has ‘low center of gravity’ and EV handles curves better than majority of ICE cars!
  • NPV – Nanotubes PhotoVoltaic systems (or cells). Solar panel cell using Nanotubes to increase a light absorbency to 100%, that increase efficiency up to 50%. Used mostly by NASA in a space due the high cost, expensive production and care of those cells. A space does not have a dust and humidity.


  • PHEV Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle
  • PV – Photo Voltaic AKA Solar Panel. A panel cell or unit converts a light energy into electricity. A small PV had been installed on some Nissan Leafs. Those supply electricity only to the auxiliary 12 VDC battery. See also CPV or NPV.


  • Regenerative braking — A torque electric motor works as a generator recharging batteries using kinetic energy of the vehicle. With normal friction brakes, a certain amount of energy is lost in the form of heat created by friction from braking. The destruction kinetic energy goes back into the batteries resulting in improved range. All ICE cars slowly destroy their brake pads because those do not have a traction batteries to return energy.
  • REX – Range EXtender is small ICE engine connected to electric generator to produce electricity for EV traction battery.


  • SAE – Society of Automotive Engineers. A society that creates automotive technology standards.
  • SAE J1772 – International Standard for Level 1 and 2 AC EV Chargers. Sometime referred to AC/DC charging protocol for CCS or compliant devices eg common charging EV connector. J1772 supports AC charging up to 20 kW (240V/80A).


  • T – Tesla is a unit of magnetic flux density named after Nikola Tesla. T is also Tesla Energy Corp. trademark letter that makes the best EV in the World with most spreaded network of level 3 fast Superchargers. If you are buying EV and would like to travel/drive ‘anywhere’, a Tesla should be your first choice.


  • UL certification. UL – Underwriters Laboratories now serve 113 countries (since 1894) to test toxic materials, dangerous electrical equipment and components to provide World/public safety standards and building inspections. All your EV and EVSE components must be UL certified or UL listed. Any dangerous equipment sold in US must be UL certified.


    • V – Voltage [V] is electric potential difference between two points. We have few kind of residential AC voltage around the World: 120V, 240V in US and 220V in Europe.
    • VAC – Volts of Alternating Current. Versus VDC – Volts of Direct Current DC. Eg: 240 VAC is common voltage of service line for modern US, Canada and Mexico household.
    • VIN – Vehicle Identification Number. VIN can be found inside the driver’s side door, open the door and look at the door post (where the door latches when it is closed). Also it is on the driver corner of the dashboard where it meets the windshield.


    • W – Watt is measurement of Power [W] Classic definition of the 1 Watt of Power is an Energy produced/consumed during one second. 1 [hp] horsepower is 746 watts.


    • ZEV – Zero Emission Vehicle. Vehicle that does not produce any emission, that should be more clean than CFV.

    [X] – X is measurement Unit