EV drivers Frequently Asked Questions

  1. ➛ Environment
    Eelectric motor does NOT have the deadly (CO2) emission! Any Diesel is prohibited to use inside even large spaces (warehouse) because it killed so many poor people at home with electric outages. Also the dark story from The Holocaust: Nazi SS oficer Roschmann (Butcher of Riga) used an ICE exhaust during less than 15 minutes as a cheapest method to kill about 20 Jewish prisoners inside mooving Death Truck. The rumor: Hitler congratuleted Roschmann for the invention of the "such efficient killing machine". The deadly emmision from the ICE considered the main factor of the Climate Change. Because about 2 Billion cars responsable for the about 80% of our Planet air pollution.
  2. ➛ Efficiency
    The Efficiency of an el. motor up to 10 times mor than ICE! Or 20 mpg vs 120 MPGe. 95% vs 20%. First ICE efficiency was < 10%. How many billions of dollars ICE companies spent on R&D to gain just 10% during about 200 years?? More than half energy of an ICE is wasted for noise, heat and internal friction of hundreds moving parts. FYI: electric motor has only one moving part - rotor
  3. ➛ Simplicity and Easy Implementation
    One moving part vs. hundreds. An example is self-upgrading and self-driving Tesla. That returned vehicle leadership to US! It is challenging (sometime is inpossible) to implement many inventions to an ICE. Electronics does not requere a Mechanical Interface to an electric motor. The Mechanical Interface must be implemented for the ICE connected to any Electronics.
  4. ➛ Low cost ownership
    The fact: EV owner pays mostly for tires versus ICE complicated and expensive (each 3000-5000 miles!) pre-scheduled services
  5. ➛ Lifespan
    Some electric motors work 24x7 more than 150 years on a water pumping stations. It needs just to replace brushes once a year. Modern electric motor is brush-less now. First Tesla S has been driven 250,000 miles in harsh Norwegian climate, lost 7%-8% of battery capacity, looks like new and owner paid for tires only during all years. Let say owner will change battery pack after a million miles and it will be almost a new car again. The bottleneck of EV-s is battery, but there is gassip about Tesla million miles battery pack for Tesla Roadster 2. V3 supercharger charging time is almost the same if ICE car driver fills full tank and stands inline to pay for it in the crouded gas store. Tela driver ommited payment process for supercharging -- It is online made instantly and the driver sees the charge upon the complicion via a phone app or any laptop browser. Can ICE car make a million miles? If yes how much $$ owner will spend for oil and parts replacements? Also do not forget expensive ICE labor. A million dollar ICE car needs expensive ICE tuning and transmission parts replacement after each harsh drag racing with Tesla. Tesla systems could be analyzed remotely and get maybe a free software upgrade and to race better next time.
  6. ➛ Torque
    El. motor produces peak torque at zero RPM, meaning acceleration is theoretically instant on EV! It means safe merging into the highway traffic if you drive an EV. ICE needs max RPM to produce the peak torque. Almost all million dollars ICE car loose to Tesla S on a 'short' drag race
  7. ➛ El. motor regenerates energy
    While Electric motor produces an Energy driving downhill or on EV breaking, eg. on red light. The (more pollution) part heavy ICE track consumes more energy on descent because it can not rely on brakes and it breaking down by ICE. Swiss Engineers invented heaviest EV track on Earth. It is so powerful, the charger for it have not been made, yet! How EV works w/o charger!? It means Free Energy! Not exactly - it called gravity at work or transferring potential energy to kinetic one. Loaded track regenerated same amount of energy while going downhill. This energy is enough to get it back up to the hill to continue those cycles. The mass of an ore (+truck) is the potential energy and EV computer controls the ore load on the top of mount. Simple physics but even Stanford professor (in particle physics) become very emotional (as happy) after I delivered this news to him!
  8. ➛ Low center of gravity
    battery pack can be distributed or lay-down around the EV floor that significantly changes stability and road curving due low center of gravity. That makes fun to curve on EV, moreover the EV safe balance is much better than majority of sport ICE car
  9. ➛ Break-in period
    You can drive @max-speed and severely test any EV immediately after a purchase. Break-in period for an ICE is 200-1000 miles depends on model.
  10. ➛ Finally, a Science and the Future
    The Theoretical Thermodynamic limit of ICE is 46%! It means no matter how much time (10.000 years?) or a money an oil magnates will spend, in any way, the half of the ICE energy would be wasted for a noise and heat, always.

You should know 2 things about your EV before to buy home or mobile charger for it:
1. What is max current (power) your EV battery pack can accept. Usually it is 32A max or 240VAC*32A=7.68kW of the power. Tesla S can accept up to 80A. If your EV accepts 32A max than you should buy 40A Charger for it. See the list of the best chargers
2. If you plan to charge more frequently out of your apartment than you should buy the mobile charger. If you have a house (or a garage) with solar panels than buy a stationary charger that will save you a money: your EV's battery pack will live longer because you do less fast charging and you have cheaper electricity at home than it cost to charge your EV at public charger (it may be 2 times). If you have solar panel than it is FREE charge for your EV!
Charge your EV:
1. @Home: use (240VAC*30A=7.2kW) dryer outlet (overnight charge) or regular wall outlet (slowest charge). You need an adapter: from your dryer outlet to your EV charger plug, that will cost for you about $30-$50 depends from the cable length
2. On trip:
a. Public EV chargers, samaritans electrical outlets or common NEMA 14-50 (240VAC*50A=12kW) RV parking outlet. You should download an app (eg. PlugShare) to your mobile phone to find those.
b. Use small electrical generator or Solar Panels with micro-inverter.
c. Use well known apps to locate public chargers: PlugShare, Open Charge Map,Alternative Fuels Data Center or Tesla.com/supercharger web-page
3. In emergency situation: "Only electrician" can connect you to the electrical pole wires using especial hooks-connectors or You can tow your car in drive gear mode with LOW SPEED using strong enough especial cable. Some manufactures do not recommend to tow-charge an EV. If the max towing speed of your EV determined by manufacturer! It is the same physical process of an EV power regeneration as you driving a downhill that is under on-board computer control but in most cases the tow-charging somehow out of the control of your EV computer and almost all manufacturers do NOT recommend it! Here is video of a speed-controlled tow-charging-success of Tesla Model 3 with no more than 20mph. But if something will happen with this white Tesla 3 in the future while the car under the manufacturer warranty Tesla Corp. may say: "Great and bold video, we like it, but we are voiding your warranty because this problem may related to the tow-charging.."

Any traction battery pack manufacterer recomends to fast charge the battery to 80% and drive. Even with slow overnight charge a manufacturer does not recomend to charge it to 100% moreover if you will not travel a long distance next morning. A fast charge to 80% prevents your battery pack to overheat and be more healthy. It is not good for the pack health to pump electrons 'to fast' using a fast charger. An EV on-board computer stops to charge it at 80% or sometime little bit earlier according of the battery temperature and other conditions to make your batteries livespan longer.

Longer life conditions for your battery:
  1. Do not discharge below 10%, below 1%-3% could be a deadly for some batteries.
  2. Do not overcharge above 80%-90%
  3. Temperature range should be: from 40°F to 113°F (5° - 45°C)
  4. Charge as slow as possible. Overnight charging is preferable over fast charging. If you travel -- find a hotel with or near a Level 2 public (Destination) charger to charge your EV overnight
  5. Discharge to 0% may kill some packs instantly. Charge to 100% count as the complete cycle and some modern packs have 1,000-5,000 full cycles life limit depends from chemistry and manufacturer. Sometime Tesla protects it's batteries by reducing real energy pack value on some EVs as we learned from the hurricane news 2017 in Florida. Nothing wrong with this picture: if customer/driver paid for 80KWh and Tesla gifted/unlocked to stressed drivers 85KWh moreover in the emergency citation. May be only Tesla sacrifices it's own profit for the quality and the battery pack longer life because Tesla driver paid for 80kWh but surprisingly got 85kWh. Tesla's Model 3 2018, battery pack costs $190 per kWh, and General Motor's 2017 Chevrolet Bolt battery pack is estimated to cost about $205 per kWh.

  1. Never discharge it below 3%! and leave it always over 10%-30% in the case your EV would be unattended for a long time. Battery leak for Tesla M3 is approx a few miles per day with everything (Century mode, Climate control etc) OFF
  2. Call a towing truck if it below 3% and you did not make your destination. Tow your EV to any closer Level 2 charger (not L3 fast one) because fast or Supercharger will not start (sometime) with a cold and almost empty battery pack. It is better to pay a hundred $$ for the tow truck than a thousands $$ for your EV pack repair. Usually it never happened if you plan your trip.
  3. Some Li-ion packs die if you discharge it to 0%
    Some EV maker can void a traction battery warranty if they would proof you missed charging station deliberately according a "Black Box" (if your EV has one) and you bring your battery pack few times for a repair already.
  4. Never charge it above 90% and 95% if you planing long trip. Modern Li-Ion pack has approximately 1,000-3,000 cycles if you charge from 1% to 100%. Or in this case theoretically you can charge your EV during 5-10 years (100% charge for 300 miles/day) and the pack should lose up to 30% after all. BUT if you will charge each day from 10% to 80% you may drive up to 2 or 3 times longer (280 miles/day) to get the same degradation because a partial charging does not count as a full cycle.
    See some life samples of a Battery Degradation
    The first Tesla S made 250,000 miles (in harsh Finland climate) and lost 7% of its Li-Ion original pack capacity and the car looks OK w/o any major repairs. The owner paid mostly for tires only. What an owner would do with ICE car after quarter of million miles?? LOL. A rental car companies with a Smart Management do sale a new ICE cars after warranty of 32,000 miles is expired paying only for oil change 6 times. There is no oil change in EV!
  5. An EV should be driven in the neutral gear if you are driving a long downhill with 100% charged battery pack! If EV manufacturer (a startup) has not been count this situation then you will simply kill your batteries by overcharging those during long descend. Even your EV or you has a full control of a regeneration, the prevention (error in software etc) and logic of saving an energy (if you need to drive longer distance) -- would be use of neutral gear. Replace brake pads after over-wearing (or overheating) is cheaper than replace expensive battery pack. As a matter of fact: EV does not regenerate on neutral gear and your brakes works as regular brakes on ICE car. Use pulse breaking (exercise your muscles) instead of holding it during all descent. Do not afraid (but follow your balance instinct) curving on any descent (except slippery road) because EV has 'low center of gravity' and EV handles curves better than majority of ICE sport cars!

It does not convert the voltage, but it controls the AC current and protects you. The EVSE has a computer inside that runs safety J1772 protocol. It is responsible for your and yours EV safety. Eg: You can start to charge your EV with 240VAC while you standing in water in heavy shower and wind, you are 100% wet! You should not have any fear to be electrocuted while you are wet and you see green safety light is on at any public charger. Also it never overcharge your EV batteries and it increases and decreases amperage according your EV on board computer requirements and temperature measurements. Almost any EV on Earth has J1772 protocol (and connector) for level 1 and 2 overnight charging. The fast Level 3 chargers are more expensive and incompatible with each other and sometime it is an optional for less expensive EV. You can charge your EV anywhere on earth on any public chargers with J1772 plug versus level 3 fast chargers, those public chargers have different plug for each country even Tesla Superchargers have different plug in each continent. Modern level 3 EVSE have 900VDC dangerous voltage that may instantly ashes any wet human if it would run w/o the safety protocol. The safety protocol is checking first - ground, second what did you connect to it and also other things and only after it is recognized the EV and all necessary specification, it turns on itself. If you disconnect a plug the EVSE dangerous voltage turns off itself during one millisecond! It has the same protection principles as 120VAC hot GFCI outlet mounted next to the water facet in your kitchen.

No, because It is not just simple wiring adapter like a Tesla to J1772. Communications protocols are different for those fast chargers and you need a real time protocol translator based on a good processor (as a computer processor). FYI: Tesla Corp. has created Tesla to CHAdeMO adapter (~$450) with processor and software inside.
An electrician can make during 20 minutes any wired adapter that will connect eg. your dryer outlet to your charger (EVSE) plug. CCS is only competitor to the Tesla Supercharger. Tesla made the CHAdeMO adapter to promote the fast charger and fight the main CSS competitor. To make an adapter it is make real time protocol translator. Eg. an Arduino with an 'proprietary translator software' can do it. It is much easy to translate CCS J1772 protocol to Tesla then CCS because a Tesla charging protocol based on J1772 protocol, that why you can charge a Tesla from any public J1772 charger just using simple adapter with few wires inside, provided by Tesla with any Tesla car.

  • Model: In 1828, Ányos Jedlik, a Hungarian who invented an early type of electric motor, created a small 'model' car powered by his new motor
  • Practical Model: The first known 'practical' electric car was built in 1837 by chemist Robert Davidson of Aberdeen, England
  • Production: English inventor Thomas Parker, who was responsible for innovations such as electrifying the London Underground, overhead tramways in Liverpool and Birmingham, and the smokeless fuel, built the first 'production' electric car in London in 1884
  • EV Taxi branches in New York and London (in the beginning 1900 century) had been sabotaged by Oil Magnates
  • Out of our Planet: There is no place for ICE cars because of absence of O2. The three lunar rovers are exploring Mars. are currently parked on the moon. Tesla Roadster 2 may be will be captured by Martian colony in future. Now it is in the orbit between Earth and Mars. Also we have several Mars-rovers
  • Highway-capable most remarkable production EV in modern history:
    1. GM EV1 1996 - vandalized by creator! See documentary: "Who kill electric car". Lowest drag coefficient in history of any production cars--0.19 First EV success story in history of our World.
    2. Nissan Leaf 2011 - produced more then other EVs
    3. BMW i3 2013 with ReX - 'SERIAL' Hybrid real success story, but has a bicycle tires
    4. Tesla S 2012 - best of the best, but expensive
    5. Tesla model 3 2017 - a beginning of the end of all non-efficient ICE polluters.

Yes, only one time, on mount road, uphill. Did not make my destination just by one mile. During the last 2 decades I draw my Nissan Leaf, Tesla M3 and Toyota RAF4 with NiCd batteries.
"Usually, people who stuck w/o gasoline - they stuck w/o electric energy!"

Do not drive from 100% to 0% and measure the driven distance. It is dangerous for your battery!
Ask your manufacturer to measure the degradation if you have some doubts and you are not a technical person.
Here is excellent poular links to follow
Few labs in 2019 tested a modern Li-ion cell for 1 million miles with degradation approx 50%. Even in a Mercedes ICE car 'everything' has been replaced after a half million mile and it's frame and body only may drive to 1 million. Some Electric motors works 24x7 a 100 years on water pumping station replacing bearings and brushes. All modern electric motors are brush-less, have a composite bearings forever and life time warranty. EV traction pack usually has 50-75 k-miles warranty of 20-30% degradation depends from manufacturer. For more explicit info on a battery visit batteryUniversity.com