FCEV - Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle, a.k.a. Zero Emission Vehicle.
A vehicle with electric motor(s), that uses a smaller battery pack compares to BEV. The pack is charged by The Hydrogen Fuel Cells (FC) unit.
The FC electric generator also supplies energy to the electric traction motor.
FCEV exhaust is clean water only.
Imagine an EV with a REx, but instead of small ICE/REx, it has
a Fuel Cell generator. In this case, we may say that "FCEV classified as the series Hybrid" Like a gas-powered car, an FCEV is capable of refueling
in 5-10 minutes, but at a hydrogen station instead of a gas pump. The driving range is a little bit more than a gas car, about
300-350 miles on a tank of 8kg of Hydrogen. Hydrogen fueling stations, however, are not yet widely available outside
of California, and as of April 2018, Hydrogen vehicles are currently available for a lease only in California. Liquid
Hydrogen is the most leaked substance in the Universe and if you leave a (certified and tested) tank full of hydrogen then after a few years
it may not be full. Also, hydrogen is very explosive and dangerous. The Hindenburg disaster occurred on May 6,
1937. And it will be always in our Memory.
FCEV Cons: Explosively dangerous, most expensive compare to all types, complicated systems. FCEV drivetrain is similar to the BEV power train except it never has a charging inlet/port, moreover sometime FCEV has an electric outlet to supply your house in the case of an electric outage in your area.
One FCEV solved problem: The FC continues to produce energy for a while after a complete shutdown and if the battery pack is full, where to store energy? So, onboard computer constantly watches the battery SoD State of Discharge to hold some reserved space for the FC discharge. The human intent is to keep a battery full, that is why you wouldn't see a charging port on any FCEV. Except Nikola 2021 pickup truck with 600! miles super-range. It drives altogether: 300 miles on 100kWh pack and 300 miles on 8kg of Hydrogen while Nikola FC works the entire trip.
The latest news (05-2020): Toyota made the FC navy-generator that produces Hydrogen from a sea water using an electrolysis. The successful voyage of a hybrid catamaran tested positively -- the Seawater FC.
Considering Li-Ion approaching $100/kWh and $40K Tesla Model 4 2024 will have a more dense battery that allows fitting a pack for 400 miles range. However, FC could be very useful for uses in:
A motor/engine is a device that converts energy (commonly thermo-chemical or electric) to Kinetic Energy. The motor is Kinetic Energy Source for any vehicle.
Series hybrid - EV that use a serial drivetrain
receive mechanical power from the electric motor(s) 'only' and uses a smaller battery pack compare to BEV.
The pack could be charged (in-motion) by any source of energy: Small ICE called REx, Diesel, Fuel Cells, Portable
Thorium Nuclear Reactor.
Pros over the Parallel Hybrid: The series hybrid is almost 2 times less Energy Consuming than parallel one. But it is less efficient than a BEV. Great example: i3 REx has combined 118 MPGe vs Toyota Prius - 52 MPGe Theoretically, a series hybrid can be driven inside a city without the REx while the unreliable ICE is OFF or in a repair shop.
The most important fact to comprehend: The REx or small ICE is mechanically apart from the driveline and supply electricity to traction battery only, like an electrical generator on a submarine. The series hybrid drivetrain has been used on ocean ships, nuclear submarines, locomotives, and other really powerful vehicles to save some fuel. In May 1954 Baldwin built a 4,500 horsepower (3,400 kW) steam turbine-electric locomotive. GE had hoped to deliver a prototype steam turbine locomotive in 1937, the series Hybrid locomotive. Series hybrids are also called Range Extended Electric Vehicles (REEV).
Parallel hybrid - ICE and electric motor work together in parallel power combinations. The Synergy Unit on the front axle contains an Electric motor and ICE as 'never' separated engines. This is the most inefficient drivetrain because inefficient ICE is a traction motor too and the ICE kills not only an environment it also kills the efficiency in a hybrid system. Moreover, Why to pay double for complicated Prius with 52 MPG while you can pay about $12,000 for Toyota Yaris with 42 MPG?? Both are polluters and Yaris is more reliable than Prius. An example of Parallel hybrids would be a Toyota Prius or a Chevy Volt. Almost all old models (2000) parallel hybrids permanently pollute and only a few new models are PHEV, those are may drive up to a hundred miles on small traction battery pack by an electric motor only and temporarily do not pollute. The parallel hybrid pollutes less than an ICE because any hybrid regenerates and stops ICE on low energy consumption (low speed) moreover short stops eg. a traffic light. Parallel hybrid drivetrain had been used "only in small vehicles" due to complexity and inefficiency from late 1980 (as a production HEV) and it is just an unsuccessful experiment in the time of weak batteries, or maybe it is an ICE nostalgia; Versus, series hybrids have been used for more power vehicles, for a long time. Toyota seawater FC navy generator (invented in 2018) would be for a while.
series+Parallel hybrid - The front axle is driven by ICE and the rear axle driven by an electric motor. It is an efficient
and less polluting than ICE drivetrain while it works as a series hybrid. Good example would be the
Volvo V60 produced for European Market only or BMW i8.
Usually, Volvo V60 drives only 20-30 miles on a highway as a series hybrid while the ICE (in this case REx) tries to keep a small
battery pack to be charged. It is a very complicated system (with many modes of driving) as the parallel hybrid or/and series hybrid.
The another parallel mode: ICE drives the car while rear electric motor may work as a generator for charging the
traction battery pack. Also, the system could be considered as a PHEV because you can plug the Volvo into any outlet to charge overnight.
The V60 and few BMW models are only series+Parallel hybrids with sync complicity between 2 diferent engines.
The challenge is -- to sync the electric motor with the ICE in parallel mode only..
Many organizations and companies on the Planet felt on the challenge. I rented the Volvo V60 2017
in Stockholm in 2018. I like this car but not the efficiency of the car in Parallel Mode only that is less than my Prius 2004 efficiency. According to my data collection
from the V60 instrumentation panel and few experimentations -- Volvo engineers made the 'smart sync': if the electric motor rotates slower than ICE than
electric energy from the electric motor regenerates to the traction battery, else: the system switches the ICE to a neutral drive.
The most important fact to comprehend: The Volvo V60 drivetrain acts both ways:
On high speed it combines power from both engines and the hybrid system has been defined as the Parallel Hybrid.
Sometimes the rear electric motor works independently and the hybrid system has been defined as the series Hybrid.
In the parallel hybrid case, there is not good sync between engines because energy consumption measured in km/l (MPG) encreased more abruptly than it would be on my Prius at a similar speed, considering the fact: Prius has better drag coefficient than V60. This is my preliminary speculation. I did not collect enough data on energy consumption to judge the sync properly. The V60 is a great hybrid with complex multiple mode changes and Volvo leadership in safety, a close competitor to "i" series hybrids from BMW, but not the Tesla rival. Another exelent car of series+Parallel hybrid would be an exotic supercar - Koenigsegg Gemera 2020 with ICE on front axle and twin electric motors on rear one.